申请同济大学工学博士学位论文


考虑列车运输组织影响的市域轨道交通规划

 

培养单位:交通运输工程学院

一级学科:交通运输工程

二级学科:交通运输规划与管理

研 究 生:杨金花

指导教师:杨东援 教授

二○一○年七月

 

A dissertation submitted to

Tongji University in conformity with the requirements for

the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Suburban Rail Planning with

the Factors of Transportation Organization

 

School: School of Transportation Engineering

Discipline: Transportation Engineering

Major: Transport Planning and Management

Candidate: Yang Jinhua

Supervisor: Prof. Yang Dong-yuan

July, 2010

 

摘  要

我国城市轨道交通处于快速发展时期,市域轨道作为城市轨道交通的重要组 成部分,因其在解决市中心居民过分集中、改善居住条件、发展卫星城镇等方面 的战略导向功能,在大城市轨道线网规划建设中方兴未艾。然而开通的市域轨道 线路上运营中屡次出现列车开行方案不能满足市域客流出行需求的问题,究其原 因,主要是因为市域轨道规划过程中,未能充分考虑列车运输组织的多样性以及 列车运输组织对线网规划方案的要求,从而导致运营阶段出现市域线网形式制约 列车开行方案的制定的情况。如何把列车运输组织融入市域轨道交通规划,建立 一套适合我国市域轨道线网规划的流程是本文研究的主要目的。

论文分析了市域轨道客流分布特征,论述了跨站停列车运输组织模式的可行 性,借鉴不同运输领域确定开行方案的方法,从满足市域客流出行需求角度,按 照按流开车的原则,设计了四种列车开行方案。其中第一种列车开行方案为全部 站站停方案,其余三种列车开行方案均为大站停列车和站站停列车交错运行方 案。

为了在轨道线网规划阶段详细掌握客流在区间和车站的分布及组成,以便对 列车开行方案和设施服务水平进行综合评价,论文构建了基于列车开行方案和停 站方案的乘客换乘网络。在乘客换乘网络基础上,借鉴公交客流分配理论,进行 了基于用户均衡交通分配模型的客流分配。借助Transcad 软件,得到了轨道线 网上各区间和车站的客流分布及组成,从而为接下来的开行方案和线网设施评价 工作提供了数据。

建立了列车开行方案和线网设施服务水平评价指标结构,并从客运需求满足 程度、运行图可靠性、线网基础设施能力利用程度三方面对评价指标进行分类。 在各开行方案客流分布数据基础上,通过统计分析、借助仿真软件、铺画运行图 等方法计算得到断面客流量、区间饱和程度、车站客流量、平均乘车时间、输送 效率、可容纳OD 上限、达到满图可插入列数、设备能力利用率、线网储备能力 等多项指标。

依据列车运输组织对市域轨道设施通过能力的要求,结合开行方案和线网设 施相关评价指标,以方便乘客换乘、提高和优化系统运能为目标,对不受施工条 件限制的市域轨道线网建设进行了研究。把线网设施的建设分为通道的设计和车 站的设计两方面,通道的设计主要研究了市域轨道与城市轨道的有效衔接形式和 市域轨道通道上车站的合理分布;车站的设计主要研究了换乘站、越行站和折返站三种类型车站的配线形式、站台形式和能力优化步骤。

论文主要成果:

(1)求解了两个"匹配"问题
把考虑列车运输组织影响的市域轨道交通规划归结为两个"匹配"问题:一、 列车开行方案与市域轨道客流出行需求相互匹配;二、规划线网设计通过能力与 列车开行方案的通过能力需求相互匹配。第一个匹配在"根据客流需求确定列车 开行方案"章节中求解,第二个匹配分三个步骤求解,分别为"构建乘客换乘网 络"、"开行方案和线网设施服务水平评价"和"线网设施建设"。

(2)提出了基于列车运输组织考虑的市域轨道规划流程建议
对结合列车运输组织的市域线规划流程进行了梳理和探讨。从预测客流OD 出发,结合市域轨道客流特征,根据乘客需求确定市域轨道列车开行方案;通过 乘客换乘网络的设计,以及在换乘网络上进行公交客流分配,以掌握乘客在列车 及线网上的分布;通过多方面多个评价指标的计算,对列车开行方案和线网设施 服务水平进行综合评价;结合评价指标和借鉴国外市域轨道建设经验,提出市域 轨道设施的建设要求。

(3)补充了开行方案的评价指标
在城市轨道交通线网规划报告中,对列车开行方案的评价目前仅限于区间运 能与运输需求的满足程度指标,本文建立了开行方案和线网设施服务水平评价指 标结构,并计算得出多项评价指标,补充了列车开行方案评价指标,有利于全面 评价列车开行方案服务水平。

(4)提供了市域轨道设施配建标准
本文对线网的衔接、线网区间的布置、车站配线的设置三方面提出了建设要 求。其中包括,从与城市轨道交通线网的衔接形式、合理的站间距大小、换乘站 的同站台换乘设计、越行站和折返站的配线形式等方面给出了市域轨道建设原 则、推荐指标、以及能力优化步骤。弥补了我国市域轨道由于建设标准缺失而导 致轨道形式和制式不统一的缺陷,为市域轨道的规划建设提供参考依据。

关键词: 运输组织、市域轨道、城市轨道交通、列车开行方案、公交分配、评价指标、乘客换乘网络、通过能力

 

ABSTRACT

As one of the most important part of urban mass transit which is developed quickly in China, suburban rail has been noted for its strategy oriented function that is to release the high density of downtown, to improve living condition, and to develop new towns. However, on the newly built suburban rail network, we confront a common problem that train operation plans which were made during the operational period can not satisfy the travel demand of suburban passengers very well. The reason for this is that the diversity of transportation organization scheme and its requirement to rail network was not well considered during the suburban rail planning process, so that train operation plan was restrict by the forms of suburban rail network in operational process. How to combine transportation organization scheme with suburban rail planning, to build a reasonable planning process for China suburban rail is the main research aim of this paper.

On the basis of Passenger flow characteristics, and the feasibility of skip-stop transportation organization scheme, with the help of operation plan from different fields, to satisfy the travel demand of suburban passengers, four kinds of train operation plans was determined. Within them, the first train operation plan includes all stop by stop trains; the other three plans include stop by stop trains mixed with skip-stop trains.

In order to evaluate the service level of train operation plans and infrastructure comprehensively, we need to obtain the passenger flow distribution and construction on the sections and stations in the suburban rail planning process, so passenger interchange network were construct on the basis of train operation plan and stop plan. Transit Equilibrium Assignment (UE model) was carried out on the passenger interchange network. With the help of software TRANSCAD, the passenger flow distribution and construction on the sections and stations was obtained, and these data serve as basis for evaluation of train operation plans and infrastructure.

Service level evaluation index system of train operation plan and infrastructure was built, and evaluation index were categorized according to three factors, as satisfied level of passenger transport demand, stability of timetable, utilization of infrastructure carrying capacity. Based on the data of passenger flow distribution, with the method of statistic analysis, the software simulation, and timetable planning, such indices as maximum section flow, saturation of sections, passenger flow of stations, average on-board time, transport efficiency, maximum OD to accommodate, maximum train path to insert into timetable, carrying capacity utilization of infrastructure, reserved capacity of network were calculated.

To meet the carrying capacity requirement of transportation organization scheme to suburban rail network, consider the evaluation indices of train operation plans and infrastructure, facilitate passenger interchange and improve or optimize carrying capacity of the whole transport system, suburban rail network construction without engineering restrictions was studied. Here we mainly stress on corridor design and station design. In the corridor design part, the effective junction forms and reasonable distance between stations were researched; and in station design part, the number of sidings, platform setting and capacity optimization process of transfer stations, overtaking stations and turn-back stations.

Main achievement of this paper:

(1) Solving two "match" problems
Suburban rail planning process with the factors of transportation organization was concluded into two "match" problems: first, to match train operation plans with travel demand of suburban passenger flow; second, to match the carrying capacity of designed network with the carrying capacity requirement of train operation plans. The first "match" problem was solved in the Chapter 3; while the second "match" problem was divided into 3 steps, and was solved in Chapter 4, 5 and 6 respectively.

(2) Providing a reasonable planning process for China suburban rail
First, based on the forecast passenger OD, and the travel characteristic of suburban passenger flow, train operation plan was designed; second, with the distribution data on the passenger interchange network, the service level of train operation plans and infrastructure was evaluated comprehensively; third, with the help of evaluation index and construction experience of suburban rail in other countries, the construction requirements of China suburban rail infrastructure in planning process were made.

(3) Increasing the evaluation indices of operation plan
In the report of suburban rail reasonability study, the evaluation index recently is only limited to the comparison between the supplied capacity with the travel demand in the sections. So the service level evaluation index system of train operation plan and infrastructure which was built, and the evaluation indices which were calculated facilitate the service level evaluation of train operation plans in practice.

(4) Supplying the construction standard of suburban rail infrastructure
Three factors as effective junction forms, the distribution of sections and station settings were studied, within which the standards or principles of the network connection to urban mass transit, the distance between stations, cross-platform transfer design, the siding setting of overtaking stations and turn-back stations were suggested. These data will serve as construction standards in suburban rail planning, and help to revise the discordant of suburban rail network due to the missing construction standards before.

Key Words:  Transportation organization, Suburban rail, Urban mass transit, Train operation plan, Transit assignment, Evaluation index, Passenger interchange network, Carrying capacity