申请同济大学工学硕士学位论文


城市外围大型居住社区

居民出行特征分析

 

培养单位:交通运输工程学院

一级学科:交通运输工程

二级学科:交通运输规划与管理

研 究 生:姚伟奇

指导教师:杨东援 教授

二○一二年三月

 

A dissertation submitted to

Tongji University in conformity with the requirements for

the degree of Master of Engineering

 Analysis on resident trip characteristics in

large-scale residential community in suburban

 

School: School of Transportation Engineering

Discipline: Transportation Engineering

Major: Transport Planning and Management

Candidate: Yao Weiqi

Supervisor: Prof. Yang Dong-yuan

March, 2012

 

摘  要

我国一些特大型城市和大型城市中心城区的高密度开发和建设带来了人口密度、交通拥堵等城市问题。为缓解中心城区的压力,很多大城市将建设重点从市区转向外围郊区,一批中心城外围大型居住社区涌现而出。


    论文对上海市外围大型居住社区作出定义如下:规模大于50万平方米,人口规模达到2万,且坐落于上海市外环线以外区域,以居住为主要功能。该类社区地处偏远,其居民以中心城动迁户居多、工作生活与中心城存在很强的联系,出行特征与中心城居民具有明显差异。且由于交通服务水平有限,居民正常出行需求难以得到保障。研究中心城外围社区居民的人群属性和出行特征就成为提高其交通出行品质、改善生活质量的重要前提,对促进社会稳定和谐发展具有重要意义。


    论文以上海市嘉定区金鹤新城居民出行特征和意愿调查数据作为研究基础,利用数理统计方法分析了社区中居民的个人和家庭属性特征,解读了不同属性居民在出行目的、出行强度、出行方式和出行时间等方面存在的差异。通过与上海市中心城居民出行特征比较,得到外围社区居民平均日出行率偏低、通勤早高峰提前等结论。

使用结构方程模型,通过建立居民出行特征的SEM模型得出居民的社会经济属性对居民出行目的和方式产生直接影响,再间接作用于出行强度和时间;工作性出行对维持性生活出行有促进作用等结论。引入基本功能、追求品质和私家车特征等7个潜在变量,建立出行方式选择SEM 模型,当居民的社会经济属性确定时,认为出行速度、准时性、舒适度、卫生状况、安全性和交通拥堵情况对居民选择出行方式影响最大。得到公交满意度指标中候车时间、首末班车时间、准点情况是最关键的三个指标等结论。为提高外围社区公交服务水平提供参考依据。

论文以金鹤新城居民出行行为和意愿调查为例,对抽样方法、调查方法的选择进行了说明,详细介绍了调查设计和调查实施的各个步骤,并对各步骤的原因做出解释,为日后开展类似调查提供有价值的参考。

关键词: 外围大型居住社区,出行行为,行为意愿调查,结构方程模型

 

ABSTRACT

High-density development and construction in some large cities and urban centers of large cities have brought problems such as population density, traffic congestion and so on. In order to alleviate the pressure of urban functions and population in the center city, many large cities shift its construction of focus from urban to the suburb, and then a number of large-scale residential communities have emerged out in suburban.


    Large-scale Residential Community in suburban in this paper is defined as follows: the area is larger than 500,000 square meters, the population is more than 20000, located outside the outer ring of Shanghai, and the main faction is to live. These communities located in remote, and the residents are mostly households relocated from the central city, and their life has a strong contact with the central city. so the travel characteristics of their residents are different from center city residents, and the residents' normal travel demand can not be guaranteed due to the limited transport services. To study the population attributes and travel characteristics of these residents is an important prerequisite for improving the quality of life and traffic travel, and has a great significance for promoting social stability and harmony.

Based on the data of travel attitude and behavior which is collected from a survey in Jinhe Community Jiading District in Shanghai,this paper analyzes the individuals’ and families’ characteristics of the residents by using mathematical statistical methods, and interprets the differences of residents in the trip purpose, travel intensity, travel mode and travel time. Compared with the trip characteristics of residents in the center of Shanghai, this paper gets the conclusions that the average daily trip rate of residents live in suburban is lower,and the morning peak hour of commute traffic is earlier.


    Using structural equation modeling, establishing SEM modeling about the residents’ travel characteristics, the conclusions are as follows: residents’ socio-economic attributes have a direct impact to the residents’ trip purpose and travel mode, and also have an indirect impact on the travel intensity and travel time; working travel can promote the necessary life travel and so on. This paper introduces seven potential variables to analyze and study the different factors that impact residents choose travel mode. If the residents' socio-economic attributes have been identified, the model shows that travel speed, punctuality, comfort, health conditions, safety and traffic congestion have the greatest impacts for residents to choose travel mode. The model also shows that waiting time of the bus, when the first and last bus reaches, and punctuality are the most important three indicators of public transportation satisfaction degree. It also provides a reference for improving the community bus service levels.


    Based on the survey of travel attitude and behavior, this paper describes the choice of sampling method and survey methods, and introduces the various steps of the survey design and survey implementation in detail, which provides a valuable reference for similar surveys in future.

Key Words:  Large-scale Residential Community in suburban, Travel behavior, behavior and attitude survey, structural equation model